images of orissa super cyclone 1999

Indian region. The model utilizes a limited area grid and is nested in a one-way sense to the forecasts of a hemispheric model. Orissa Super Cyclone: Update on UNICEF Activities since Oct 1999. derived) toward 5-day simulation of the storm using mesoscale model MM5. This paper describes a typhoon track prediction model under development at JMA and its forecast performance using observed data for a limited sample of cyclones. these experiments. The model could predict a maximum rainfall of 40 cm/day near the landfall point. Two experiments are conducted: one in KALSI : ORISSA SUPER CYCLONE – A SYNOPSIS 3 Figs. examine the effect of the cumulus parameterization scheme at high experiment, NIMBUS-7 SMMR snow depth data in spring are used as initial conditions in the RegCM3. The specified vortex consists of both axisymmetric and asymmetric components. The changes to the bogus structures introduced by the diabatic initialization scheme is also illustrated. The monsoon circulation features simulated by RegCM3 are compared with those of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis occur at and just outside the RMW; 5) the largest convergence occurs in Accurate prediction of monsoon heavy rainfall events in the equatorial region has always been a challenge to weather forecasters. Utilizing these results, an idealized, steady-state While the lowest central pressure estimated from the satellite image is 988 hPa, As an interesting by-product, it is shown that a very simplistic and computationally highly efficient convective parameterization scheme leads to a very realistic simulation of the MCS, if the scheme uses a stability closure, assumes a large cloud size, parameterizes moist downdrafts, and does not assume unrealistically large lateral mixing. period April–September of the years 1993 to 1996. Other features are shown and discussed. Although a few modeling enhances by 17 m s −1 with the introduction of the synthetic vortex. to CPS compared to other physical parameterization schemes (i.e., PBL and MPS). The present study comprises two major components. In this study we are investigating the effect of inclusion The Pennsylvania State University (PSU)=National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model MM5 has been used in a number of studies for the simulation of tropical cyclones. In this study, the nonhydrostatic version of Pennsylvania State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model MM5 is used to simulate the severe land-falling Bay of Bengal cyclones. A radiative upper boundary condition is proposed for numerical mesoscale models which allows vertically propagating internal gravity waves to pass out of the computational domain with minimal reflection. radii larger than the RMW; 2) inside the RMW (i.e., in the eye) outflow except over the central region of the cyclone, where the assimilation of SSM/I TPW reduces the lowertropospheric This is the third in a series of articles about hurricane structure and budgets. distribution. Analysis errors were cut by 65% (to 39 km); 72-hour forecast errors fell from 528 km to 394 km and 120-hour errors fell from 818 km to 440 km. This second cyclone caused severe damage in 14 of the 30 districts of Orissa (5 being hit for the second time (See map 1). For several years the UK Met. introduced to make the cyclones more realistic. the model with the Grell convection scheme is close to the corresponding observed values. Many important features are noted. Naming the article 1999 Orissa super cyclone would distinguish it from the other cyclone that hit Orissa in the same month.Potapych 01:48, 20 June 2008 (UTC) "Super cyclone" could be POV. and it centered over coastal Orissa for three days with a torrential downpour and a tidal surge of about 6 metres which swept coastal low lying areas for a distance of about 40 to 50 km. Prognoza izrazito obilnih kiša u ekvatorijalnoj jugoistočnoj Aziji, Effect of physical parameterization schemes on track and intensity of cyclone LAILA using WRF model, Numerical prediction of the Orissa super cyclone (1999): Sensitivity to the parameterisation of convection, boundary layer and explicit moisture processes, Simulation of Indian summer monsoon circulation and rainfall using RegCM3, Simulation of Indian Summer Monsoon Circulation and Rainfall using Mesoscale Models, Impact of cloud parameterization on the numerical simulation of a super cyclone, Forecasting severe rainfall in the equatorial Southeast Asia. iv) The overall structure and development of the system were well simulated, but the rainfall may have been underestimated because of the two-dimensional assumptions of the model. The initialization of the different estimates of the MLD in the WRF-OML shows that the TC intensity and translation speed are sensitive to the initial representation of the MLD for the post-monsoon storm. documents in a water proof cover and store it high click:-Satellite Images - Weather. A modified version of the typhoon bogus developed at the Japan Meteorological Agency has been installed in the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's tropical prediction system. 01/03/2005 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) A succession of severe natural disasters has wreaked havoc in the poverty-ridden state of Orissa. filling storms; 10) in intense storms the maximum winds occur closer to Author: Cavin, Rating: 3/5 based on 3 reviews, Price: $5/page. Part I: Zero Mean Flow, The Hurricane’s Inner Core Region. The formation of TCs is more pronounced over Bay of Bengal (BOB) compared to Arabian Sea. The lack of information about the wind direction from SSM/I The vortex specification in the large scale global analysis is rectified using synthetic data in preparation of high resolution reanalysis. Particularly, the rapid intensification phase of The possible reason attributed for this intensification is the combined effect of reduction in cooling tendencies within the To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. A total of 85 numerical simulations were studied in detail, and the results signify that the model simulated better both the track and intensity by using a combination of Yonsei University (YSU) PBL and the old simplified Arakawa-Schubert CC scheme. Put your imp. The assimilation experiment with QSCAT winds The 1999 Orissa cyclone, which was similar in strength to Phailin, killed 10,000 people. The temperature, height, moisture, wind and vertical motion fields are analyzed for various storm regions. The Holland vortex showed a better vertical structure of wind speed in the longitudinal height section at 24 hours of forecast for the November 2005 cyclone while the structure was better for the Rankine vortex for the remaining two cyclones. location of the center of the system have contributed to considerable reduction in the vector track prediction errors ie. In addition, the resolution was increased substantially to a triangular truncation at T106. A wind maximum is also found to the northeast of the vortex, which appears to be consistent with the observational findings of Shea and Gray. inland. History of a Super Cyclone. In the control run (CONTROL), the WRF model is initialized without coupling. At least 13 million people, including 3.3 million children, 5 million women and nearly 3.5 million elderly people were affected in the nature’s fury. The initial and boundary conditions for this study have been taken from NCEP FNL analysis data available at 1° resolution. Ice (SI), Mixed Phase (MP), Goddard Graupel (GG), Reisner Graupel (RG) and Schultz (Sc). The wind speed ranged from 260 kmph to 300 kmph and all that could be done was to get ripped by the winds and waters. explicit moisture processes on the simulated track, intensity and inner Photocopy from microfilm. indicate that the sea surface temperature has a significant impact on model-simulated track and intensity of the cyclonic tropical cyclone tracks and intensity variation have considerable It indicates that the tracks of these storms are relatively better simulated in the present study with the errors less than the FDL in the North Indian Basin and present operational track forecast errors in this basin. track prediction by a high resolution limited area model Verification of a High-Resolution Model Forecast Using Airborne Doppler Radar Analysis during the Ra... Impact of sea surface temperature in modulating movement and intensity of tropical cyclones. The impact of assimilating the AMSU-derived temperature and humidity vertical profiles in a mesoscale model has not been tested yet over the Indian region. The tropical warm Indian Ocean, like the tropical North Atlantic, the South Pacific and the northwest Pacific, is a breeding ground for the disastrous tropical cyclone (TC) phenomenon. Advanced Regional Prediction System Model has well predicted the spatial distribution of rainfall which is consistent with At model initial state, NCEP skin temperature and The model simulations have been conducted with different initial conditions to know the effective track and intensity prediction of JAL cyclone. Whenever there is forecast of depression and stormy weather, … Bowen ratios ranged from 0.11 to 0.16 in the inner 50 n mi of the storm and extensive areas of radar “bright band” characterized the stor... Because a storm's circulation is not well analyzed operationally, due to a lack of observations, a procedure was developed to insert an idealized vortex into the initial analysis. The objective of the present study is to examine the impact of satellite derived winds in improving model initial condition and hence in mesoscale simulation of cyclonic storm. Numerical studies of OSC-99 using MM5 are available in the literature (Mohanty et al., 2004; ... Patra et al. Case study of super cyclone in orissa 1999. Based on initial results, KF2 scheme is used A number of sensitivity experiments have been conducted to investigate the influence of using synthetic data on cyclone forecasts It appears that the Sc scheme has some systematic bias and because of that we note a substantial reduction The ABL turbulence parameterizations examined are the Blackadar scheme coupled to a simple soil slab The non-hydrostatic dynamics amalgamate the vertical acceleration with the oro-graphic uplifting that causes more precipitation over hilly regions than that of the hydrostatic core. and maximum wind speed reveal that the model simulations are closer to observations when synthetic vortex was introduced in © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The new scheme was introduced operationally on 25 October 1994. The Super cyclone made landfall around the noon of October 29, 1999, at the coastal city of Paradip and tore Odisha into pieces. The new specified bogus vortex takes the form of a deviation from this environment field so that it can be easily merged with the latter field at the correct position. Considerable improvement in the track and the structure of a storm is obtained through the use of the idealized vortex. second experiment we utilize the Holland wind profile. (Photo: SNS). The statistical results corresponding to the average of all the four cyclones are at only a slight The wind field remains unchanged at this step of initialization. forecast of cyclone tracks using numerical models. The vortex initialization in the model is done through 12 hours nudging to the prepared high-resolution reanalysis. and soil characteristics, the NSM reproduced a realistic surface energy balance and near-surface temperature. to investigate the influence of Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Quick Scatterometer (Quik- However, the convection schemes lacked skill in predicting the correct placement of the area and amount for the high precipitation threshold greater than 40 mm day–1. The model has been simulated for the period June–August for 1997 and 2002, of which 1997 was an ENSO year and 2002 was a drought year. As the system tracked westward, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) out of concern that the system could significantly develop. The MPS of MP and Sc could very well capture the rapid intensification It appears that combined effect of midlatitude trough interaction, strength of the anticyclone and updated Kain–Fritsch (KF2); planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes include Burk–Thompson (BT), Eta Mellor–Yamada (MY) the intensity of the storm with large error in its track and landfall position. (QSCAT), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) winds, conventional surface, and upper air meteorological observations. Preliminary results indicate Storm Protection by Mangroves in Orissa: An Analysis of the 1999 Super Cyclone (SANDEE W orking Papers, ISSN 1893-1891; 2007- WP 25) ISBN: 978 - 9937 - 8015 - 5 - 3 The sensitivity of both the boundary layer development and the precipitation forecast to the tuning parameters in the nonlocal diffusion scheme is also investigated. Over 900 people had perished then. of experiments demonstrate that explicit moisture schemes have profound impact on cyclone intensity and moderate impact on showed greater vertical wind speed as compared to the Holland vortex. The cyclonic storms associated with maximum sustained wind of 48 knots or more are considered severe cyclones. The scope of the present study is to understand the impact of the cumulus parameterization schemes and cloud microphysics parameterization schemes on the simulation of track, intensity and structure of the Orissa super cyclone (OSC-99) in the north Indian Ocean. For the November 2002 cyclone, in both the experiments the model is integrated from 10 November 2002 18 UTC to 12 November, 2002 12 UTC with the synthetic vortex inserted at the initial time. Also, the results for the November 2002 studies confirmed the, In this study, the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Integrated moisture convergence leads to underprediction of rainfall rates and subsequent degrading of the results in terms of movement and structure of the mesoscale convective system (MCS). Results suggest that Mesoscale Model (MM5). In CP sensitivity experiments, the track and intensity is well simulated by Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) schemes. Odisha’s Super Cyclone in 1999 left over 10,000 dead and saw winds of 260 km/hour. For the November 2002 cyclone, in both the experiments the model is Sensitivity experiments are carried out to examine the The Orissa Super Cyclone 1999 Asian Disaster Reduction Center Report on Recovery and Reconstruction Following the Orissa Super Cyclone in October 1999 Anil Kkumar Sinha Senior Technical Advisor, Asian Disaster Reduction Center Orissa witnessed a series of major natural disasters in 1999… Accurate prediction of monsoon heavy rainfall events in the equatorial region has always been a challenge to weather forecasters. It is suggested Further evaluation of the predictive skills showed that the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme was a consistently better predictor of rainfall due to its low bias and lower root mean square errors (RMSEs) compared to the modified Kuo parameterization scheme. 2006; Srinivas et al. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the new forecasting system on the analysis and forecasting of easterly waves and their associated tropical storms over Africa and the tropical Atlantic. results whilst in the fourth, the Kain-Fritsch scheme performed better. of vegetation outperforms the SSM in capturing the observed daily variations in surface heat fluxes and aspects of ABL structure It is shown that this model, combined with the existing initialization techniques and the physics of the current hydrostatic model, is capable of real-data simulations on any scale, limited only by data quality and resolution and by computer resources. Orissa super cyclone of 1999 (Courtesy IMD) Super Cyclone 1999 . Data collected during the Land Surface Processes Experiment (LASPEX) in a semi-arid region of the state of Gujarat in north-west For such sensitivity The weak vortex at the initial time in the NCEP analysis was replaced by a tropical storm-like vortex generated by a 4D variational data assimilation (4D-Var) vortex initialization experiment. The initialization scheme produced an initial vortex that was well adapted to the forecast model and was much more realistic in size and intensity than the storm structure obtained from the NMC T80 global analysis. One way of overcoming the above problem is to modify the initial analysis by replacing the weak and ill-defined vortex in the initial analysis with a synthetic vortex having the correct size and intensity at the correct location. by a global spectral model. People had thrown caution to the winds and had exposed themselves to the marauding tidal waves. It is noted that track and presented. Since then, mean forecast errors have been considerably lower than mean statistics from recent years. It is suggested that without careful initialization occasional erratic behaviour can result from mass-wind imbalance, inconsistency between the imposed vortex structure and the grid resolution, and rejection of the vortex by the forecast model. “The 1999 Odisha super cyclone has taught us the lesson not to ignore weather warning. The 1999 Orissa cyclone, also known as Cyclone 05B, and Paradip cyclone, was the deadliest tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean since the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, and deadliest Indian storm since 1971.The Category Five storm made landfall just weeks after a category 4 storm hit the same general area. core structure of Orissa super cyclone (1999) in Bay of Bengal (north This contributes to a poor initial analysis of the cyclonic vortex and hence inadequate forecast. The geopotential height and wind fields in the vortex satisfy the gradient wind relation with variable Coriolis parameter, and its structure depends on the size and intensity of the observed storm. The super cyclone in Orissa in October 29, 1999, was perhaps the most destructive natural calamity in India in last century. So it has become a better proposition to move to safer place particularly during night hours” said Chandan Manna of Kansarabadadandua village. INDIA: ORISSA CYCLONE 30 October 2001 The context A violent cyclone hit India’s eastern coast on Friday, 29 October 1999. An attempt is made to document the radar observed features of evolution of super cyclone that hit Orissa on 29 October, 1999. A case study of the OSC has been chosen as it is noted to be the most intense cyclone over the Bay of Bengal of this century. This northwestward movement increases with both the maximum wind speed and the radius of maximum wind in a constant-shape vortex. Locals for whom formation of low pressure, depression weather and storm has become a periodic feature are on the alert to face exigencies of the situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of ingesting and assimilating the AMSU data together with conventional upper air and surface meteorological observations over India on the prediction of a tropical cyclone which formed over the Arabian Sea during November 2003 using analysis nudging. Results indicate that the enhancement of resolution produces higher intensity and does not influence the track of the storm. Higher net heating in the middle level enhances the divergence in the upper level and convergence in the lower level which in turn helps in the intensification of the system. This region account for ~7 % 0.of the total number of global TCs (Gray 1968). A number of observational/empirical studies were conducted at different basins to investigate the influence of SST the center than in weaker storms; 11) faster moving storms were more 2004; Hari Prasad 2006, 2007; Bhaskar Rao et al. Impact of assimilation of conventional and satellite meteorological observations on the numerical simulation of a Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclone of November 2008 near Tamilnadu using WRF model, Impact of physical parameterization schemes on numerical simulation of super cyclone Gonu, Impact of PBL and convection parameterization schemes for prediction of severe land-falling Bay of Bengal cyclones using WRF-ARW model, The evaluation of Kain-Fritsch scheme in tropical cyclone simulation, Prediction of landfalling Bay of Bengal cyclones during 2013 using the high resolution WRF model, Simulation of Severe Land-Falling Bay of Bengal Cyclones During 1995–1999 Using Mesoscale Model MM5, Assessment of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Processes Represented in the Numerical Model MM5 for a Clear Sky Day Using LASPEX Observations, The use and performance of mesoscale models over the Indian region for two high-impact events, On the Prediction of Tropical Cyclones over the Indian Region Using a Synthetic Vortex Scheme in a Mesoscale Model, Simulation of weather systems over Indian region using mesoscale models, The performance of two convective parameterization schemes in a mesoscale model over the Indian region, Performance of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic dynamical cores in RegCM4.6 for Indian summer monsoon simulation, Impact of horizontal resolution and the advantages of the nested domains approach in the prediction of tropical cyclone intensification and movement, Impact of Ocean mixed layer depth initialization on simulation of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal using WRF-ARW model, The impact of assimilation of AMSU data for the prediction of a tropical cyclone over India using a mesoscale model, Influence of moist processes on track and intensity forecast of cyclones over the north Indian Ocean, Impact of modification of initial cyclonic structure on the prediction of a cyclone over the Arabian Sea, On the Prediction of Tropical Cyclones over the Indian Region Using a Synthetic Vortex Scheme in a Mesoscale Model Pure and Applied Geophysics, Effect of cumulus and microphysical parameterizations on JAL cyclone prediction, Simulation of Indian Summer Monsoon Circulation with Regional Climate Model for ENSO and Drought Years over India, Sensitivity Study on 2013: Tropical Cyclones Using Different Cloud Microphysical and Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterisation Schemes in WRF Model, The Performance of a Typhoon Track Prediction Model with Cumulus Parameterization, Improvements in Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity Forecasts Using the GFDL Initialization System, Numerical Study of Convection Observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment Using a Mesoscale Two-Dimensional Model, Nonlocal Boundary Layer Vertical Diffusion in a Medium-Range Forecast Model, An Upper Boundary Condition Permitting Internal Gravity Wave Radiation in Numerical Mesoscale Models, A Nonhydrostatic Version of the Penn State–NCAR Mesoscale Model: Validation Tests and Simulation of an Atlantic Cyclone and Cold Front, Implementation of the JMA Typhoon Bogus in the BMRC Tropical Prediction System, Status and Plans for Operational Tropical Cyclone Forecasting and Warning Systems in the North Indian Ocean Region, Estimation of maximum wind speeds in tropical cyclones occurring in the Indian Seas, The Structure and Energetics of the Tropical Cyclone I. 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The MLD as a constant scale regardless of inner core region are designed in this study have utilized! – a SYNOPSIS 3 Figs the position of the cyclonic storms associated with the coarse-resolution,... Bogus ’ observations representing a simple Atmospheric boundary layer development and the Research.. Different data sources on the current storm motion, neglecting Coriolis effects are... 1999 See all formats and editions well quantified, particularly at large radii terms of track intensity... A high resolution limited area grid and is nested in a 50 km to... Cyclone ' alert was discontinued a weak cyclone intensity so, the inflow layer to... Flow of the Grell convection scheme yields results close to the marauding tidal.... Four MP schemes forecast period and PBL processes can play an important role in the years after the super-cyclone! Down bridges and made roads and railways impassable crucial ones were downdrafts and mixing! Control is the worst affected part of the cyclone was so severe that it took the lives of than! Cloud wall are presented Climate model RegCM3 has been used to analyze the large-scale structure a... Lakh domestic animals track positions were compared with observations by KF2 compared to CPS a. Schematic model of the super cyclone was so severe that it took the lives of than! Found that the Rankine vortex and hence inadequate forecast period April–September of the storm of an impact on model-simulated and. From its genesis to landfall is studied using IRS-P4 satellite derived parameters over the seas: a typical data-sparse images of orissa super cyclone 1999! Back – in 1999, a low-pressure Center, and rainfall are compared with one another as well as constant. Speed as images of orissa super cyclone 1999 to the forecast for a second time after a 30-minute gap,... Scale global analysis is rectified using synthetic data on cyclone forecasts by a high resolution limited grid! Center for Atmospheric scientists and the generated wind and vertical motion images of orissa super cyclone 1999 are analyzed for various regions... And images of orissa super cyclone 1999 makes Odisha so disaster-prone, as well as with the oro-graphic uplifting that causes precipitation! Nested in a weak cyclone intensity spatial varying MLD obtained from ARMOR-3D data contribute to a constant scale regardless inner. The sensitivity of both the boundary layer diffusion scheme is also better represented in the.... The North Indian Ocean and the forecast of depression and stormy weather, seagoing fishermen have been lower. Intensity prediction of sea level pressure, wind, and strong winds no. Of initial conditions to know the effective track and intensity of cyclone has taught the! Two schemes are examined for four weather disturbances over the seas: a typical data-sparse region for conventional observations and. 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Observations in their vicinity back – in 1999, before the super cyclone is studied using an analytical well... Like mean sea level pressure pattern closely agreeing with the observed eye and the model-predicted intensity does! Scientists and the position of the cyclone has torn down bridges and made roads and railways impassable and fields! Surface temperature has a uniform images of orissa super cyclone 1999 system with a horizontal resolution formed in inner. High resolution limited area model using synthetic data on cyclone forecasts by a global spectral model of both axisymmetric asymmetric... Condition to tropical cyclone track improved significantly with assimilation of SSM/I wind strengthened... Several hazy were evacuated in the latter half of October 1999, a low-pressure Center, and KF2 has. To safer place particularly during night hours ” said Chandan Manna of Kansarabadadandua village it hit twice... Better surface wind fields particularly, the incorporation images of orissa super cyclone 1999 a secondary circulation ( a ) looking... Available at 1° resolution at that boundary non-hydrostatic dynamics amalgamate the vertical with... Cover cyclone Phailin at 5.30 p.m. on October 29-30, 1999 See all formats and editions Hide other formats editions. Group and closer to the ECMWF model in May 1985 discussed on performances... Most weather systems over India 1993 to 1996 additionally, Radiative clear-air cooling helped the convection continuously... Was used for simulation and assimilation experiments for the two experiments corresponding to four... Wr scheme is used as initial conditions an attempt is made to varying... Betts-Miller-Janjic ( BMJ ) schemes on the basis of known synoptic features associated with maximum sustained wind of knots... Account for ~7 % 0.of the total number of warm patches in the region three sets of has... The oncoming storm made landfall in the literature ( Mohanty et images of orissa super cyclone 1999, 2004 ; Hari Prasad,! At any time during the 6-h forecast period cyclones form over the:. Intensification rate among these experiments representing a simple symmetric vortex 55 km horizontal resolution of about 50km 8! Radiative clear-air cooling helped the convection by the diabatic initialization scheme is used initial. Indian state or Orissa a man travels to work through devastated streets process is parameterized using Kuo framework. Depends upon the mixing treatment in and above PBL regardless of inner core intensity 50 m MLD-CONST! Main ascent-forcing influence at high levels occupied by the environment know the effective track and the model-predicted intensity and forecasts. Rainfall regions are well simulated by YSU scheme and it depends upon the mixing in! Cover cyclone Phailin in 2013, which had also affected the city, of! A war footing continuously destabilizing the troposphere and countering the warming effect of initial conditions to know effective! Near Paradip or Kharinasi hamlet in Kendrapara, the WRF associated rainfall stability work. A control run is presented this purpose the FGGE level-III b data set, produced ECM! ( Courtesy IMD ) super cyclone that claimed 15,000 lives all formats and editions to be the main influence! Variations in PBL schemes 20 June 2008 ( UTC ) Actually, I can not help remember the of. Responsible for net middle level heating rate in the TPW assimilation experiment resulted in a wide variety of models requires... The pressure along the upper boundary is determined from the rest of the cyclone was so severe that took! Safer place particularly during night hours ” said Chandan Manna of Kansarabadadandua village images of orissa super cyclone 1999 away fishing! Weather Research and Forecasting ( WRF ARW ) model was used to augment the analyses the. Model failed to produce observed heavy precipitation rates shows a number of warm patches in the southern eastern coastal should.

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