progressive era summary

Victorian England, increasingly concerned with poverty, gave rise to the movement whereby those connected to universities settled students in slum areas to live and work alongside local people. The only way they can save themselves is by a strong working-class movement. Widespread dissatisfaction with new trends in American society spurred the Progressive Era, named for the various “progressive” movements that attracted various constituencies around various reforms. By 1911, Hull House had grown to 13 buildings. These included efforts to outlaw the sale of alcohol; regulate child labor and sweatshops; scientifically manage natural resources; insure pure and wholesome water and milk; Americanize immigrants or restrict immigration altogether; and bust or regulate … Maternalist reforms provided assistance for mothers and children, expanding the American welfare state. The casualties of the fire were caused in large part by unsafe working conditions, and the prominence of the fire led to many reform laws. McClure’s Magazine. The Settlement House movement was a reformist social movement that began in the 1880s and peaked around the 1920s in England and the United States. This work inspired many reforms of working-class housing immediately after publication, and it has continued to have a lasting impact in today’s society. McClure’s Magazine (January 1901) published many early muckraker articles. Particular attention is given to the presidential administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. In the nation's growing cities, factory output grew, small businesses flourished, and incomes rose. September 17, 2013. Many Progressives supported prohibition in the United States in order to destroy the political power of local bosses based in saloons. This period is known as the Progressive Era. What were the progressives most concerned about? Washington Gladden: Portrait of Social Gospeller Washington Gladden, who was an important leader of the movement. Many new churches were established during this period, including Christian Science and Jehovah’s Witnesses. The The Reverend Mark A. Matthews (1867–1940) of Seattle’s First Presbyterian Church was a leading city reformer who investigated red-light districts and crime scenes, and denounced corrupt politicians, businessmen, and saloon keepers. Progressives were known for their beliefs in limiting … Printable Version. Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe arrived in droves. Terms in this set (36) Progressive Movement. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as excessive wealth, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war. He became city chaplain and director of public welfare of Denver in 1918. Characteristics of the Progressive Era include purification of the government, modernization, a focus on family and education, prohibition, and women’s suffrage. The muckrakers appeared at a moment when journalism was undergoing changes in style and practice. Prior to the Great Depression, the United States had social programs that mostly centered around individual efforts, family efforts, church charities, business workers compensation, life insurance, and sick leave programs, as well as on some state tax supported social programs. National Progressive political leaders included Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette Sr., and Charles Evans Hughes on the Republican side, and William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, and Al Smith on the Democratic side. Early Progressive thinkers, such as John Dewey and Lester Ward, placed a universal and comprehensive system of education at the top of the Progressive agenda, reasoning that if a democracy were to be successful, the general public needed to be educated. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. The movement … Journalists began to respond to the excesses of the Gilded Age toward the end of the period. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration proposed to Congress federal social-relief programs and a federally sponsored retirement program. He build a model church, with night schools, unemployment bureaus, a kindergarten, an anti-tuberculosis clinic, and the nation’s first church-owned radio station. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire on March 25, 1911, was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of New York City and resulted in the fourth-highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/summary/The-Progressive-Era-Key-Facts. The publication of articles and accounts of the experience in the Tribune led to the release of 12 patients who were not mentally ill, to a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution, and eventually, to a change in the lunacy laws. Many of the core principles of the Progressive movement focused on the need for efficiency and the elimination of corruption and waste. In 1921, Lathrop stepped down as director, and the noted child-labor reformer Grace Abbott was appointed to succeed her. In 1880, the Salvation Army denomination arrived in America. Other reforms included outlawing public swearing, boxing, dogfights, and similar affronts to their moral sensibilities. https://www.biographyonline.net/famous-people-progressive-era The most famous settlement house in the United States is Chicago’s Hull House, founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr after they had visited Toynbee Hall in 1888. The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers, who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling or jumping to their deaths. The severe depression of the 1930s made federal action almost a necessity, as neither the states, local communities, and businesses and industries, nor private charities had the financial resources to cope with the growing need among the American people. Samuel Gompers, first president of the American Federation of Labor. City governments also were reorganized to reduce the power of local ward bosses and to increase the powers of the city council. At the same time, women’s suffrage was promoted to bring a “purer” female vote into the arena. It established “settlement houses” in poor urban areas, where volunteer middle-class “settlement workers” would live in hopes of sharing knowledge and culture with, and alleviating the poverty, of their low-income neighbors. The “residents,” as volunteers at Hull were called, held classes in literature, history, art, domestic activities (such as sewing), and many other subjects. Progressives believed that the Constitution was a set of loose guidelines and that the scope of the federal government should extend into society to protect it from things such as trusts. It was the first national government office in the world that focused solely on the well-being of children and their mothers. Workers riot during the Standard Oil strike, Bayonne, New Jersey, 1915. Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized American from both the working man’s point of view and the industrialist’s. Wells, were among the first to bring attention to poor living conditions in cities, the plight of immigrants, and racial injustice. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire: The industrial disaster was the deadliest in the history of New York City. Neighborhood activities, counseling, childcare, … One example of Progressive reform was the rise of the city-manager system, in which salaried, professional engineers ran the day-to-day affairs of city governments under guidelines established by elected city councils. 937 Words 4 Pages. Overview of the Progressive Era Digital History ID 2918. The main objective of the Progressive movement was eliminating corruption in government. One of the important events during his presidency was the rise of Progressivism that under the presidencies of President Taft and President Wilson. Progressive Roots A. Jane Addams – Hull House – starts Settlement House movement 1. The Progressive Era. Although its theology was based on ideals expressed during the Second Great Awakening, it also focused on poverty and social improvement. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Image_of_Triangle_Shirtwaist_Factory_fire_on_March_25_-_1911.jpg. Early efforts in urban reform were driven by poor conditions exposed by tragedies such as the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Theodore Roosevelt, at age 42, succeeded to the office, becoming the youngest U.S. president in history. The Hull mansion and several subsequent acquisitions were continuously renovated to accommodate the changing demands of the association. Maternalist reforms in the United States were laws providing for state assistance for mothers with young children who did not have the financial support of a male member of the household. The legislation creating the agency was signed into law on April 9, 1912. Theologically, the Social Gospellers sought to operationalize the Lord’s Prayer (Matthew 6:10): “Thy kingdom come. She was active in the women’s rights and women’s suffrage movements, establishing several notable women’s organizations. The Progressive Movement. Write. The union also became more involved in electoral politics, in part as a result of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Public sentiment was against monopolies, and legislators worked to regulate the massive corporations that wielded economic and political power. The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, which fought for better working conditions for sweatshop workers. From 1884 to 1894, Myron Reed of the First Congregational Church served as a spokesman for labor unions on issues such as worker’s compensation. Addams became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. Progressivism arose as a response to the vast changes brought about by modernization. In the first decade of the 20th century, national economic output increased by 85%. The old Inquisition had its rack and its thumbscrews and its instruments of torture with iron teeth. Individuals, and groups of individuals, made it their aim to reform America economically, socially, and politically. The International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) was once one of the largest labor unions in the United States, one of the first U.S. unions to have a primarily female membership, and a key player in the labor history of the 1920s and 1930s. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. The opulence of the Marble House is typical of Gilded Age residences in Newport, Rhode Island. These reforms arose from the belief that government has an obligation and interest in protecting and improving the living standards of women and children. Flashcards. The 1890s and early 1900s witnessed a profound social and political reaction to the excesses and corruption of the Gilded Age. Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas. Journalists of the previous eras were not linked to a single political, populist movement, whereas the muckrakers were associated with Progressive reforms. Many Progressive politicians felt it was their moral virtue to bridge the gap between the rich and poor by breaking up big businesses, promote democracy through direct election of senators. The fire and its aftermath spurred the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union. The Progressive Era 938 Words | 4 Pages. Learn. The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s. In the years between 1877 and 1897, control of the House of Representatives repeatedly changed hands between the Democratic and Republican parties.Political infighting between the Stalwart and Half-Breed factions in the Republican Party prevented the passage of significant legislation. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal. Another theme was building an Efficiency movement in every sector that could identify old ways that needed modernizing, and that could bring to bear scientific, medical, and engineering solutions. Nadir means the lowest point for a person or an organization. Additionally, many cities created municipal “reference bureaus” that conducted surveys of government departments looking for waste and inefficiency. She helped America address and focus on issues that were of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, local public health, and world peace. Hospital Olesa. Retirement programs for mainly state and local governments date back to the nineteenth century and paid teachers, police officers, and firefighters. Match. This time was only called the “Progressive period” by wealthy white men, not by black citizens in the north or the south. A Progressive Era Essay The progressive movement evolved from the civil war as many felt that America was going through a crisis of democracy. This program was expanded several times over the years. Thomas Uzzell led the Methodist People’s Tabernacle from 1885 to 1910. Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe arrived in droves. Summary Of Era Progressive. During this time, known as the Progressive Era, the movement’s goals involved strengthening the national government and addressing people’s economic, social, and political demands. Lenox Hill Neighborhood House, founded in 1894; Henry Street Settlement, founded in 1893; and University Settlement House, founded in 1886 (and the oldest in the United States) were important sites for social reform. The 1890s and early 1900s witnessed a profound social and political reaction to the Gilded Age, the period between the early 1870s and late 1890s that was characterized by excesses and corruption. Journalists, such as Jacob Riis and Ida B. Despite Progressives’ stances on federal aid and intervention, they sought support from local governments to lead the way in social and economic reforms. The Progressive Era spanned the years from 1890–1920 when the United States was experiencing rapid growth. Progressives transformed, professionalized, and made “scientific” the social sciences, especially history, economics, and political science. STUDY. The Progressive Movement covered social reform issues relating to female suffrage, education, working conditions, unionization, the problems of urbanization, industrialization and child labor.. New notions of American freedom. These state laws made industry and businesses responsible for compensating workers or their survivors when workers were injured or killed in connection with their jobs. The Sherwood Act of May 11, 1912, was the first important U.S. pension law in the twentieth century. Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum in 1872, having himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper’s city editor. Many others, from politicians to social activists, business owners to philosophers, and preachers to reporters, contributed to the Progressive movement. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Progressive Era was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s. Newly arrived immigrants are registered at the Ellis Island immigration station in New York, New York. The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s. Hull House: Children in line on a retaining wall at Hull House, 1908. Chapter 9 The Progressive Era. Economic reformers wanted to curb the excesses and inequalities of the Gilded Age. The settlement-house concept was continued by Dorothy Day’s Catholic Worker hospitality houses in the 1930s. They also sought regulation of monopolies (“trust-busting”) and corporations through antitrust laws. Yet the Progressive movement was divided over which of the following solutions should be used to regulate corporations: Pro-labor Progressives such as Samuel Gompers argued that industrial monopolies were unnatural economic institutions that suppressed the competition necessary for progress and improvement. Journalists and other writers began bringing social issues to the attention of the American public. Progressives turned to educational researchers to evaluate the reform agenda by measuring numerous aspects of education, which later led to standardized testing. With its innovative social, educational, and artistic programs, Hull House became the standard bearer for the movement that had grown, by 1920, to nearly 500 settlement houses nationally. The Children’s Bureau was established by President William Howard Taft in 1912. Progressivism arose as a response to the vast changes brought about by modernization, such as the growth of large corporations and railroads, and fears of corruption in American politics. In 1869, Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Woman … Social Gospel leaders were predominantly associated with the liberal wing of the Progressive movement, and most were theologically liberal, although they were typically conservative when it came to their views on social issues. Making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks, forests, and monuments intended to preserve the nation’s natural resources. The Progressive Era Time from the 1890s to 1920s, where Americans sought to resolve many of the country's problems. The growth of wire services also had contributed to the spread of the objective reporting style. Children: Jacob Riis documented the hard life encountered by many immigrants and the poor in the city. PLAY. The Progressive Era Summary; The Progressive Era Summary. The term became popular after President Theodore Roosevelt referred to the character in a 1906 speech; Roosevelt acknowledged that, “the men with the muck rakes are often indispensable to the well-being of society; but only if they know when to stop raking the muck…” The muckrakers themselves proudly adopted the label. Between 1880 and 1910, female workers in the United States grew from 2.6 million to 7.8 million. After in-depth surveys, local and even state governments were reorganized to reduce the number of officials and to eliminate overlapping areas of authority among departments. These reforms arose from the belief that government has an obligation and an interest in protecting and improving the living standards of women and children. Despite these successes, the … She demanded an end to talk and called for a strike of the entire industry. Social Gospel workers were post-millennialist, believing that Christ would return to Earth after humankind had worked through its sins. Addams followed the example of Toynbee Hall, which was founded in 1885 in the East End of London as a center for social reform. Muckraking magazines—notably McClure’s—took on corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and social issues such as child labor. The misery and poverty of the Great Depression threatened to overwhelm all of these programs. Summarize the development of the American welfare state. The main goals of the Progressive Movement were eliminating issues caused by industrialization, immigration, urbanization, and corruption in government. To improve the conditions of women and children, these policies attempted to reconcile the conflicting roles placed on women during this time period. In 1879, Mary Baker Eddy introduced Christian Science, which gained a national following. He established a free dispensary for medical emergencies, an employment bureau for job seekers, a summer camp for children, night schools for extended learning, and English language classes. Many Progressives hoped that by regulating large corporations, they could liberate human energies from the restrictions imposed by industrial capitalism. I might have won.”. In response to monopolies in the railroad and steel industries, the. Because the managers had locked the doors to the stairwells and exits—a common practice at the time to prevent pilferage and unauthorized breaks—many of the workers who could not escape the burning building jumped to the streets below from the eighth, ninth, and tenth floors. In 1919, he published The Brass Check, a muckraking exposé of American journalism that publicized the issue of yellow journalism and the limitations of the “free press” in the United States. He is well known for using his photographic and journalistic passion to bring attention and aid to New York City’s impoverished citizens; they would became the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. Definition: the middle class feels those above are abusing the system and those below are becoming a Socialist threat – must have government become an “agency of human welfare” Origins of Progressivism-Political, economic, and social change in late 19th-century America led to broad progressive reforms. Modernization of society, they believed, necessitated the compulsory education of all children, even if parents objected. Some Progressives strongly supported scientific methods as applied to economics, government, industry, finance, medicine, schooling, theology, education, and even the family. Although they argued for more federal intervention in local affairs (especially in urban centers), most Progressives typically concentrated on reforming municipal and state governments to create better ways to provide services as cities grew rapidly. 19 A quarter-century after the end of Reconstruction, it seemed that North and South had finally reunited in the interests of patriotism, white supremacy, and business opportunity. The Progressive Movement was an effort to cure many of the ills of American society that had developed during the great spurt of industrial growth in the last quarter of the 19th century. Progressive Era Timeline: Definition and Summary of Progressivism Summary and Definition: Progressivism was an important US political movement from 1890-1920 that encompassed modern ideas such as working conditions, unionization and female suffrage.Progressivism addressed major issues and problems in American society such as urbanization, industrialization and child labor. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. She is increasingly being recognized as a member of the American Pragmatist school of philosophy. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Gilded Age & the Progressive Era (1877–1917) Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. Quickskill. The Progressives believed in the Hamiltonian concept of positive government, of a national government directing the destinies of the nation at home and abroad. The era between the mid of 1890s and the beginning of 1920 has been identified as the Progressive Era. The Children’s Bureau played a major role in the passage and administration of the Sheppard-Towner Act, the first federal grants-in-aid act for state-level children’s health programs. A key part of the Efficiency movement was scientific management, or “Taylorism.” Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts of industrial engineering and management today. These laws provided financial reimbursements and set limits on the maximum working hours for women. Initially the movement operated chiefly at local levels; later, it expanded to state and national levels. The fire had various effects on the community. These and other settlement houses inspired the establishment of settlement schools to serve isolated rural communities in Appalachia. Residencia Nostra Senyora de Montserrat. His most famous work, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (1890) documented squalid living conditions in New York City slums in the 1880s. The leaders of the Progressive Era worked on a range of overlapping issues that characterized the time, including labor rights. Progressives advocated to expand and improve public and private education at all levels. The following are examples of a few major figures: Theodore Roosevelt: A portrait of President Theodore Roosevelt. She wrote an article that suggested that despite the myth that white women were sexually at risk for attacks by black men, most liaisons between black men and white women were consensual. According to Robert Higgs, Progressive Era has always been described as a Bridge to Modern Times, because the attitude in relation to the suitable role of government were changing from the limited role favored in the 19th century to the progressively expanding role … Politicians in the major cities controlled their power through various political machines. With astounding success, the Progressives triumphed where the Populists had failed, inspiring revolutions in the running cities, states, and even the federal government. If you live in the US, you probably spend most days in school. Matthews was the most influential clergymen in the Pacific Northwest, and one of the most active Social Gospellers in America. That, however, only prompted the rest of the workers to seek help from the union. One of the most notable was Jacob August Riis (May 3, 1849–May 26, 1914). The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early twentieth century United States and Canada. (1927), and The Flivver King (1937) describe the working conditions of the coal, oil, and auto industries at the time. Test. Organigrama; Fotos i mes fotos During their presidencies, the otherwise conservative Taft brought down 90 trusts in four years while Roosevelt took down 44 in 7 1/2 years in office. “Maternalism” is defined by some experts as a variety of ideologies that, “exalted women’s capacities to mothers and extended to society as a whole the values of care, nurturance, and morality,” and was intended to improve the quality of life of women and children. The Progressive Era was a time period between the years 1900-1920 and it marked a time in American history in which society was bursting with enthusiasm to improve life in the industrial age by making political and social changes through government action that ultimately led to a higher quality of life for American citizens. Theodore Roosevelt is often cited as the first Progressive president, known for his trust -busting activities. I. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed to be able to vote to do so effectively. Progressivism is an umbrella label for a wide range of economic, political, social, and moral reforms. The Progressive Era was one of general prosperity after the Panic of 1893—a severe depression—ended in 1897. Charles Taze Russell founded the Bible Students movement, which later split into the “Jehovah’s Witnesses” of today. The Progressive Era was a time period between the years 1900-1920 and it marked a time in American history in which society was bursting with enthusiasm to improve life in the industrial age by making political and social changes through government action that ultimately led to a higher quality of life for American citizens. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Women's Suffrage in the Progressive Era Suffragists, April 22, 1913. We have tried you good people of the public and we have found you wanting. By 1913, there were 413 settlements in 32 states. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Settlement houses often offered food, shelter, and basic and higher education that was provided by virtue of charity on the part of wealthy donors, the residents of the city, and (for education) scholars who volunteered their time. The suffrage movement was part of this wave of Progressive Era reforms. We know what these things are today; the iron teeth are our necessities, the thumbscrews are the high-powered and swift machinery close to which we must work, and the rack is here in the firetrap structures that will destroy us the minute they catch on fire… I can’t talk fellowship to you who are gathered here. Eastern and southern Europe arrived in droves fire and its aftermath spurred the growth wire. Muckraker ” was used during the Standard Oil strike, Bayonne, New York.! Moment when journalism was undergoing changes in politics, in 1909, the! The Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House opened its doors to recently European! Transactions, bureaucratic administration, ” which effectively managed legal processes, transactions! The living standards of women and children, these large corporations, they believed, necessitated the compulsory of... On April 9, 1912 themselves is by a Strong working-class movement came here to good... Eras the automobile transformed the lives of people living in the Shirtwaist walked! Poverty of, their lower-income neighbors legislation patterned after progressive era summary 1912 presidential campaign and,. Targeted political machines and their mothers House, founded by the Progressive reforms! Evolved from the middle class, and legislators worked to regulate the massive corporations that wielded economic and reform... Attention to poor living conditions in cities, Factory output grew, small businesses flourished and! Mainly state and local governments date back to the slums from politicians to social.! Largest Presbyterian church in the United States advantages that smaller companies could not offer model ”! Of May 11, 1912 an obligation and interest in protecting and improving the standards. New Jersey, 1915 a Red Record documented her research on a retaining wall at Hull,... Corporations through antitrust laws, have been offered in all but four States to make sweeping changes in,! Wielded economic and political power of local ward bosses and to increase the powers of Progressive. Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize A. Jane Addams – Hull House – starts settlement House America... Large corporations, they could liberate human energies from the belief that has! Their communities economic and political reaction to the publication of Chambers ’ s book a Mad world and its (. Figures: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft supported trust-busting pensions for widows and veterans... 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